The term water treatment refers to the processes that take place to make treated water drinkable. By ridding it of odors, purifying it, and removing its hardness.
The term water treatment extends to include also the physical, chemical, and biological processes, and the mechanism that takes place to make the water suitable for a specific use and not necessarily for drinking, and the type of treatment depends on the required use, and on the source of the water to be treated.
This is because the methods of treating gray water, which is the water that results from domestic uses such as bathing and washing dishes, differ from the methods of treating black water that results from using toilets.
DRINKING WATER TREATMENT
Public water networks use different methods to treat drinking water, To rid it of pollutants and make it safer for use, and the treatment method depends on the source of water, surface water such as lakes and rivers is often more polluted than groundwater, and contains more sediments, and in general drinking water is treated by following those steps:
1. Coagulation and Flocculation
It is intended to add positively-charged chemicals to the water, to neutralize the dirt and solvents that carry a negative charge, and thus the dissolved substances are collected in the form of a large mass called floc.
The pomace is deposited at the bottom of the tank.
After sedimentation of the pomace, the water passes through filters of various composition and size of pores, to rid the water of coal, sand, and gravel, in addition to soluble materials such as chemicals, dust, viruses, bacteria, and parasites.
It is intended to add substances such as chlorine or monochloramine to kill the viruses, bacteria, and parasites left in the water.